Summary: with this information, you’ll learn guidelines for the SQLite international key constraint to implement the commitments between similar tables

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Summary: with this information, you’ll learn guidelines for the SQLite international key constraint to implement the commitments between similar tables

Summary: contained in this information, you will then see making use of the SQLite international principal constraint to enforce the relationships between connected game tables.

SQLite overseas important restriction support

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SQLite have reinforced foreign principal constraint since model 3.6.19. The SQLite archive also needs to get put together with neither SQLITE_OMIT_FOREIGN_KEY nor SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER.

To check whether your overall version of SQLite allows mysterious secret regulations or don’t, you utilize the next management.

The management comes back an integer price: 1: enable, 0: handicapped. When order results really, it means your SQLite version shouldnat help unknown principal regulations.

In the event the SQLite library try collected with international key constraint help, the program can use the PRAGMA foreign_keys command to enable or disable unknown principal constraints at runtime.

Summary of the SQLite international secret constraints

Letas start out with two tables: manufacturers and supplier_groups :

Assuming that each distributor is assigned to matchless one trader cluster. And every one provider group might have zero or lots of distributors. The partnership between supplier_groups and retailers tables try one-to-many. This basically means, for each row in distributors desk, there’s a corresponding strip during the supplier_groups counter.

Currently, it is impossible avoiding you from incorporating a-row for the distributors desk without a corresponding strip in supplier_groups stand.

Plus, you may possibly pull a row from inside the supplier_groups stand without deleting or modernizing the corresponding rows into the dealers table. This might write orphaned lines when you look at the distributors counter.

To enforce the relationship between lines through the manufacturers and supplier_groups dining table, make use of the unknown secret constraints.

To incorporate the mysterious secret constraint within the distributors counter, your alter the definition of the GENERATE DESK account above below:

The supplier_groups table known as a father or mother dinner table, which is the dinner table that a different important sources. The providers counter is called children desk, which is the table to which the unknown principal restriction relates.

The students_id column for the supplier_groups stand is called the adult key, that is certainly a column or some articles within the moms and dad dinner table your overseas key restriction records. Generally, the mother or father important would be the major important of the mother desk.

The group_id line into the dealers stand is called the kid principal. Generally speaking, the child important records towards major important on the moms and dad table.

SQLite unknown principal limitation instance

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1st, insert three lines into the supplier_groups stand.

Second, put a new supplier into the vendors dining table utilizing the vendor people that exists into the supplier_groups counter.

This account is effective completely quality.

Third, make an attempt to insert an innovative new supplier into manufacturers desk using seller party it doesn’t are in the supplier_groups stand.

SQLite analyzed the international trick restriction, denied the transformation, and issued these oversight content:

SQLite foreign principal constraint practices

What can come so long as you delete a row during the supplier_groups table? Must the corresponding lines within the suppliers dinner table will be removed? The equivalent problems into posting operation.

To indicate just how mysterious secret limitation acts each time the moms and dad important try removed or changed, you make use of the about ELIMINATE or ON ENHANCE action the following:

Used, the worth of principal type in the rear desk normally do not alter hence the improve principles tend to be less vital. The more essential guideline might DELETE rule that specifies the experience when the adult secret is wiped.

Weall look at each action from appropriate case


After elder important modifications, get rid of or modify, the corresponding baby important factors of most rows inside youngster dinner table set to NOTHING.

First, decrease and develop the desk vendors making use of the put NULL measures for the party_id international important:

Second, insert some lines into suppliers counter:

Third, erase the vendor class id 3 from supplier_groups counter:

Fourth, search reports from dealers desk.

The beliefs of this group_id column with the corresponding rows into the suppliers table set to NOTHING.


The preset TRADITIONAL activity designs the worth of the international the answer to the traditional price specified inside column meaning once you create the stand.

Since beliefs through the column people_id defaults to NULL, in the event that you erase a-row through the supplier_groups stand, the prices of the group_id will set-to NULL.

After assigning the traditional worth, the unknown secret constraint kicks in and holds the check.


The REDUCE motions don’t permit you to alter or erase ideals in mother or father principal of rear desk.

Initially, shed and create the providers dining table with the LESSEN action during the foreign principal crowd_id :

Secondly, add a row into desk vendors with all the crowd_id 1.

Last, remove the provider cluster with id 1 within the supplier_groups stand:

SQLite issued listed here mistakes:

To completely clean it, you must for starters get rid of all lines from your companies stand which includes party_id 1:

Subsequently, you can actually erase the seller team 1 through the supplier_groups dinner table:


The NO ACTIVITY doesn’t imply by-pass the foreign secret constraint. This has the same influence because CONTROL .


The WATERFALL motions propagates the modifications through the mom dining table within the kid counter as soon as you upgrade or erase the adult trick.

Initially, put the provider groups in to the supplier_groups counter:

2nd, decrease and make the dinner table sellers making use of the SUCCESSION motions in the international principal team_id :

Third, put some dealers in to the stand companies :

Last, posting people_id with the residential dealer class to 100:

Fifth, problem information from your stand sellers :

As we discussed the value when you look at the party_id column on the XYZ Corp in desk vendors switched from 1 to 100 when we refreshed the students_id for the suplier_groups counter. It is the result of ON IMPROVE CASCADE motion.

Sixth, delete company collection id 2 from your supplier_groups stand:

Seventh, query info from the table sellers :

The dealer identification 2 whose crowd_id is 2 was removed once the distributor cluster identification document 2 is taken off the supplier_groups table. This is effectation of the regarding DELETE SUCCESSION activity.

Through this guide, you may have discovered SQLite international key restriction and ways to utilize them to impose the relationship between relevant information.

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